# Mathematics

Radnor Middle School's Mathematics curriculum has been developed to accommodate the various levels of a student’s mathematical abilities and skills with the goal to develop thinking skills through emphasis on mathematical concepts.

## 6th Grade Math

### 6th Grade Intensive Math

**Length: **Year

**Format: **Meets Daily

**Description: **The goal of this course is to provide students with a foundation of math skills traditionally considered essential for success in higher level math courses. Some of the topics include: operations, integers, equations, and measurement. Strands of geometry, algebra, and data displays are also presented throughout the course. Students engage in problem-solving situations that require application of skills to make real-life connections to learned concepts. Students learn calculator skills and work with decimal operations, fraction operations, number patterns, exponents, ratios, proportions, and percentages, as well as area, volume, and probability. Students work at an appropriate pace for their learning levels, as the content is adapted to the individual needs of each student. Consideration for enrollment in this course is based on the specific needs addressed in an Individualized Education Plan (IEP). The class meets in a small group setting with modified pacing and instruction in order to ensure mastery of the topics covered.

### 6th Grade Course 1 Math

**Length: **Year

**Format:** Meets Daily

**Description: **Course 1 is the U.S. edition of the top-rated Singapore math program, Math in Focus, which follows the pedagogical framework that includes emphasizing concept mastery, a concrete-to-pictorial-to-abstract approach, metacognitive reasoning, and the use of model drawing to solve and justify problems. The Common Core State Standards have identified four (4) big ideas for Course 1: ratio and proportion, number, algebra, and statistics. Instructional time should focus on four (4) critical areas: (1) connecting ratio and rate to whole number multiplication and division and using concepts of ratio and rate to solve problems; (2) completing understanding of division of fractions and extending the notion of number to the system of rational numbers, which includes negative numbers; (3) writing, interpreting, and using expressions and equations; and (4) developing understanding of statistical thinking.

### 6th Grade Course 1 Honors Math

**Length:** Year

**Format: **Meets Daily

**Description: **Course 1 is the U.S. edition of the top-rated Singapore math program, Math in Focus, which follows the pedagogical framework that includes emphasizing concept mastery, a concrete-to-pictorial-to-abstract approach, metacognitive reasoning, and the use of model drawing to solve and justify problems. The Common Core State Standards have identified four (4) big ideas for Course 1: ratio and proportion, number, algebra, and statistics. Instructional time should focus on four (4) critical areas: (1) connecting ratio and rate to whole number multiplication and division and using concepts of ratio and rate to solve problems; (2) completing understanding of division of fractions and extending the notion of number to the system of rational numbers, which includes negative numbers; (3) writing, interpreting, and using expressions and equations; (4) developing understanding of statistical thinking. Designed for students who require a more rigorous exposure to grade-level concepts, this course features more difficult problem sets studied at a faster pace.

### 6th Grade Course 2/3 Seminar Math

**Length:** Year

**Format:** Meets Daily

**Description: **Students continue to develop their mathematical proficiency by building and extending the skills learned in sixth (6th) grade math. Students work with more complex expressions and equations involving signed numbers. They develop the skills needed to recognize pattern and structure and to reason logically to solve word problems. Students study special angles, such as vertical and alternate-interior angles, and are introduced to probability. The five (5) main ideas for Course 2/3 are proportional relationships, operations with rational numbers, algebra, geometry, and probability. Instructional time should focus on five (5) critical areas: (1) developing understanding of and applying proportional relationships; (2) developing understanding of operations with rational numbers and working with expressions and linear equations; (3) solving problems involving scale drawings and informal geometric constructions and working with two- and three-dimensional shapes; (4) drawing inferences about populations based on samples; and (5) formulating and reasoning about expressions, solving linear systems of equations.

## 7th Grade Math

### 7th Grade Intensive Math

**Length: **Year

**Format: **Meets Daily

**Description: **The goal of this course is to build on concepts taught in sixth (6th) grade to develop an understanding of integers and their operations, and apply those learned skills to evaluate expressions as well as solve equations and inequalities. In addition, students cover basic geometry, data analysis, and probability. Work with factors, fractions, exponents, ratios, proportions, and percentages also take place. Within each unit, problem-solving and making realālife connections to learned concepts are emphasized. Consideration for enrollment in this course is based on the specific needs addressed in an Individualized Education Plan (IEP). Students work at an appropriate pace for their learning levels. The class meets in a small group setting, with modified pacing and instruction, in order to ensure mastery of the topics covered.

### 7th Grade Course 2 Math

**Length:** Year

**Format: **Meets Daily

**Description: **The Common Core State Standards have identified four (4) big ideas for Course 2: proportional relationships, operations with rational numbers, algebra, geometry, and probability. Instructional time should focus on four (4) critical areas: (1) developing understanding of and applying proportional relationships; (2) developing understanding of operations with rational numbers and working with expressions and linear equations; (3) solving problems involving scale drawings and informal geometric construction, and working with two- and three-dimensional shapes; and (4) drawing inferences about populations based on samples.

### 7th Grade Course 2/3 Honors Math

**Length: **Year

**Format: **Meets Daily

**Description:** Students continue to develop their mathematical proficiency by building and extending the skills learned in sixth (6th) grade math. Students work with more complex expressions and equations involving signed numbers. They develop the skills needed to recognize pattern and structure and to reason logically to solve word problems. Students study special angles, such as vertical and alternate-interior angles, and are introduced to probability. The five (5) main ideas for Course 2/3 are proportional relationships, operations with rational numbers, algebra, geometry, and probability. Instructional time should focus on five (5) critical areas: (1) developing understanding of and applying proportional relationships; (2) developing understanding of operations with rational numbers, and working with expressions and linear equations; (3) solving problems involving scale drawings and informal geometric constructions, and working with two- and three-dimensional shapes; (4) drawing inferences about populations based on samples; and (5) formulating and reasoning about expressions, solving linear systems of equations.

### 7th Grade Seminar Algebra I

**Length: **Year

**Format: **Meets Daily

**Description: **This course is designed to develop algebraic skills and concepts and enhances problem-solving ability. Topics include: polynomial expressions and equations, quadratic functions, irrational numbers, coordinate graphing, graphing linear and quadratic functions, basic statistics, determining and analyzing the slope of lines, and factoring polynomial expressions. Algebra skills and concepts needed to solve equations, inequalities, and systems of equations/ inequalities are developed. Algebraic problem-solving techniques are employed to solve relevant applications.

### 7th Grade Seminar Geometry

**Length: **Year

**Format:** Meets Daily

**Description: **This course is an extremely challenging, rigorous, proof-based approach to geometry. Students in Seminar Geometry analyze geometric figures using deductive reasoning, make conjectures and formulate hypotheses, draw conclusions, and make connections with other mathematical concepts and model situations geometrically as a problem-solving strategy. The course is designed to develop the ability to think mathematically, enhance problem-solving ability, and supplement the basics of plane geometry with a foundation in space, coordinate and transformational geometry. Algebraic and geometric skills are integrated throughout the curriculum. Designed for students who require the most challenging exposure to concepts, this course features the most difficult problem sets studied at the fastest pace. This course is primarily designed for accelerated eighth (8th) grade math students who successfully completed Algebra I and passed the Keystone Algebra I exam.

## 8th Grade Math

### 8th Grade Intensive Math

**Length: **Year

**Format:** Meets Daily

**Description: **The goal of this course is to build on concepts taught in seventh (7th) grade and to provide an introduction to Algebraic concepts. Topics covered in this course include, but are not limited to, the following: expressions, integer operations, patterns, linear equations and inequalities, functions, graphing techniques, and data analysis. Furthermore, skills related to fractions, exponents, ratios, proportions, and percentages are developed. Within each unit, students will focus on problem-solving and making real-life connections to learned concepts. Students work at an appropriate pace as the content is adapted to the individual needs of each student. The class meets in a small group setting with modified pacing, materials, and instruction in order to ensure mastery of the topics covered. Students at this level begin Algebra I in ninth (9th) grade, complete Algebra 1 in two (2) years, and will take the Algebra 1 Keystone Exam upon completion of the course in tenth (10th) grade. Consideration for enrollment in this course is based on the specific needs addressed in an Individualized Education Plan (IEP).

### 8th Grade Course 3 Math

**Length: **Year

**Format: **Meets Daily

**Description:** Course 3 has three (3) big ideas: algebra, including statistical applications, functions, and geometry. Key topics include exponents and scientific notation, equations and functions, ideas involving geometry, and statistics. This course should focus on three (3) critical areas: (1) formulating and reasoning about expressions, solving linear systems of equations, modeling an association in bivariate data; (2) developing understanding of functions and using functions to describe quantitative relationships; and (3) analyzing geometric figures using distance, angle, similarity, congruence, and applying the Pythagorean Theorem.

### 8th Grade Honors Algebra I

**Length: **Year

**Format: **Meets Daily

**Description: **This course is designed to develop algebraic skills and concepts and enhances problem-solving ability. Topics include: polynomial expressions and equations, quadratic functions, irrational numbers, coordinate graphing, graphing linear and quadratic functions, basic statistics, determining and analyzing the slope of lines, and factoring polynomial expressions. Algebra skills and concepts needed to solve equations, inequalities, and systems of equations/ inequalities are developed. Algebraic problem-solving techniques are employed to solve relevant applications.

### 8th Grade Seminar Geometry

**Length: **Year

**Format: **Meets Daily

**Description: **This course is an extremely challenging, rigorous, proof-based approach to Geometry. Students in Seminar Geometry analyze geometric figures using deductive reasoning, make conjectures and formulate hypotheses, draw conclusions and make connections with other mathematical concepts, and model situations geometrically as a problem-solving strategy. The course is designed to develop the ability to think mathematically, enhance problem-solving ability, and supplement the basics of plane geometry with foundation in space, coordinate, and transformational geometry. Algebraic and geometric skills are integrated course features and the most difficult problem sets studied at the fastest pace. This course is designed for accelerated eighth (8th) grade math students who successfully completed Algebra I and passed the Keystone Algebra I exam.